### wireless power transmission - magnetic radiation

James Clerk Maxwell first formally postulated electromagnetic waves. These were subsequently confirmed by Heinrich Hertz. Maxwell derived a wave form of the electric and magnetic equations, thus uncovering the wave-like nature of electric and magnetic fields, and their symmetry. Because the speed of EM waves predicted by the wave equation coincided with the measured speed of light, Maxwell concluded that light itself is an EM wave.
According to Maxwell's equations, a spatially varying electric field causes the magnetic field to change over time. Likewise, a spatially varying magnetic field causes changes over time in the electric field. In an electromagnetic wave, the changes induced by the electric field shift the wave in the magnetic field in one direction; the action of the magnetic field shifts the electric field in the same direction. Together, these fields form a propagating electromagnetic wave. This view of propagating electromagnetic waves makes sense from a local perspective,[1] but note that some prefer instead to look into the past for the source charge(s) that were the original cause of the wave.[2]
A quantum theory of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter such as electrons is described by the theory of quantum electrodynamics.

Properties

The electric field is in a vertical plane and the magnetic field in a horizontal plane
Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This 3D diagram shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right
This 3D diagram shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right
Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This diagram shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right. The electric field is in a vertical plane and the magnetic field in a horizontal plane.
The physics of electromagnetic radiation is electrodynamics. Electromagnetism is the physical phenomenon associated with the theory of electrodynamics. Electric and magnetic fields obey the properties of superposition. Thus, a field due to any particular particle or time-varying electric or magnetic field contributes to the fields present in the same space due to other causes. Further, as they are vector fields, all magnetic and electric field vectors add together according to vector addition. For example, in optics two or more coherent lightwaves may interact and by constructive or destructive interference yield a resultant irradiance deviating from the sum of the component irradiances of the individual lightwaves.
Since light is an oscillation it is not affected by travelling through static electric or magnetic fields in a linear medium such as a vacuum. However in nonlinear media, such as some crystals, interactions can occur between light and static electric and magnetic fields — these interactions include the Faraday effect and the Kerr effect.
In refraction, a wave crossing from one medium to another of different density alters its speed and direction upon entering the new medium. The ratio of the refractive indices of the media determines the degree of refraction, and is summarized by Snell's law. Light of composite wavelengths (natural sunlight) disperses into a visible spectrum passing through a prism, because of the wavelength dependent refractive index of the prism material (dispersion); that is, each component wave within the composite light is bent a different amount.
EM radiation exhibits both wave properties and particle properties at the same time (see wave-particle duality). Both wave and particle characteristics have been confirmed in a large number of experiments. Wave characteristics are more apparent when EM radiation is measured over relatively large timescales and over large distances while particle characteristics are more evident when measuring small timescales and distances. For example, when electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by matter, particle-like properties will be more obvious when the average number of photons in the cube of the relevant wavelength is much smaller than 1. Upon absorption of light, it is not too difficult to experimentally observe non-uniform deposition of energy. Strictly speaking, however, this alone is not evidence of "particulate" behavior of light, rather it reflects the quantum nature of matter.
There are experiments in which the wave and particle natures of electromagnetic waves appear in the same experiment, such as the self-interference of a single photon. True single-photon experiments (in a quantum optical sense) can be done today in undergraduate-level labs. When a single photon is sent through an interferometer, it passes through both paths, interfering with itself, as waves do, yet is detected by a photomultiplier or other sensitive detector only once.

### wireless power transmission-Electrostatic induction method

Electrostatic or capacitive coupling is the passage of electrical energy through a dielectric. In practice it is an electric field gradient or differential capacitance between two or more insulated terminals, plates, electrodes, or nodes that are elevated over a conducting ground plane. The electric field is created by charging the plates with a high potential, high frequency alternating current power supply. The capacitance between two elevated terminals and a powered device form a voltage divider.
The electric energy transmitted by means of electrostatic induction can be utilized by a receiving device, such as a wireless lamp.Tesla demonstrated the illumination of wireless lamps by energy that was coupled to them through an alternating electric field.
"Instead of depending on electrodynamic induction at a distance to light the tube . . . [the] ideal way of lighting a hall or room would . . . be to produce such a condition in it that an illuminating device could be moved and put anywhere, and that it is lighted, no matter where it is put and without being electrically connected to anything. I have been able to produce such a condition by creating in the room a powerful, rapidly alternating electrostatic field. For this purpose I suspend a sheet of metal a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords and connect it to one terminal of the induction coil, the other terminal being preferably connected to the ground. Or else I suspend two sheets . . . each sheet being connected with one of the terminals of the coil, and their size being carefully determined. An exhausted tube may then be carried in the hand anywhere between the sheets or placed anywhere, even a certain distance beyond them; it remains always luminous."
The principle of electrostatic induction is applicable to the electrical conduction wireless transmission method.
“In some cases when small amounts of energy are required the high elevation of the terminals, and more particularly of the receiving-terminal D', may not be necessary, since, especially when the frequency of the currents is very high, a sufficient amount of energy may be collected at that terminal by electrostatic induction from the upper air strata, which are rendered conducting by the active terminal of the transmitter or through which the currents from the same are conveyed."

### wireless power transmission-Electrodynamic induction method

The electrodynamic induction wireless transmission technique is near field over distances up to about one-sixth of the wavelength used. Near field energy itself is non-radiative but some radiative losses do occur. In addition there are usually resistive losses. With electrodynamic induction, electric current flowing through a primary coil creates a magnetic field that acts on a secondary coil producing a current within it. Coupling must be tight in order to achieve high efficiency. As the distance from the primary is increased, more and more of the magnetic field misses the secondary. Even over a relatively short range the inductive coupling is grossly inefficient, wasting much of the transmitted energy.

This action of an electrical transformer is the simplest form of wireless power transmission. The primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are not directly connected. Energy transfer takes place through a process known as mutual induction. Principal functions are stepping the primary voltage either up or down and electrical isolation. Mobile phone and electric toothbrush battery chargers, and electrical power distribution transformers are examples of how this principle is used. Induction cookers use this method. The main drawback to this basic form of wireless transmission is short range. The receiver must be directly adjacent to the transmitter or induction unit in order to efficiently couple with it.

The application of resonance increases the transmission range somewhat. When resonant coupling is used, the transmitter and receiver inductors are tuned to the same natural frequency. Performance can be further improved by modifying the drive current from a sinusoidal to a transient waveform.[14] Pulse power transfer occurs over multiple cycles. In this way significant power may be transmitted between two mutually-attuned LC circuits having a relatively low coefficient of coupling. Transmitting and receiving coils are usually single layer solenoids or flat spirals with series capacitors, which, in combination, allow the receiving element to be tuned to the transmitter frequency.
Common uses of resonance-enhanced electrodynamic induction are charging the batteries of portable devices such as laptop computers and cell phones, medical implants and electric vehicles.A localized charging technique selects the appropriate transmitting coil in a multilayer winding array structure. Resonance is used in both the wireless charging pad (the transmitter circuit) and the receiver module (embedded in the load) to maximize energy transfer efficiency. This approach is suitable for universal wireless charging pads for portable electronics such as mobile phones. It has been adopted as part of the Qi wireless charging standard.
It is also used for powering devices having no batteries, such as RFID patches and contactless smartcards, and to couple electrical energy from the primary inductor to the helical resonator of Tesla coil wireless power transmitters.

### wireless power transmission-Electric energy transfer

An electric current flowing through a conductor carries electrical energy. When an electric current passes through a circuit there is an electric field in the dielectric surrounding the conductor; magnetic field lines around the conductor and lines of electric force radially about the conductor.
In a direct current circuit, if the current is continuous, the fields are constant; there is a condition of stress in the space surrounding the conductor, which represents stored electric and magnetic energy, just as a compressed spring or a moving mass represents stored energy. In an alternating current circuit, the fields also alternate; that is, with every half wave of current and of voltage, the magnetic and the electric field start at the conductor and run outwards into space with the speed of light.Where these alternating fields impinge on another conductor a voltage and a current are induced.
Any change in the electrical conditions of the circuit, whether internal or external involves a readjustment of the stored magnetic and electric field energy of the circuit, that is, a so-called transient. A transient is of the general character of a condenser discharge through an inductive circuit. The phenomenon of the condenser discharge through an inductive circuit therefore is of the greatest importance to the engineer, as the foremost cause of high-voltage and high-frequency troubles in electric circuits.
Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in the conductor which produces the fields and to the frequency. The higher the frequency the more intense the induction effect. Energy is transferred from a conductor that produces the fields (the primary) to any conductor on which the fields impinge (the secondary). Part of the energy of the primary conductor passes inductively across space into secondary conductor and the energy decreases rapidly along the primary conductor. A high frequency current does not pass for long distances along a conductor but rapidly transfers its energy by induction to adjacent conductors. Higher induction resulting from the higher frequency is the explanation of the apparent difference in the propagation of high frequency disturbances from the propagation of the low frequency power of alternating current systems. The higher the frequency the more preponderant become the inductive effects that transfer energy from circuit to circuit across space. The more rapidly the energy decreases and the current dies out along the circuit, the more local is the phenomenon.

The flow of electric energy thus comprises phenomena inside of the conductor[8] and phenomena in the space outside of the conductor—the electric field—which, in a continuous current circuit, is a condition of steady magnetic and dielectric stress, and in an alternating current circuit is alternating, that is, an electric wave launched by the conductor[3] to become far-field electromagnetic radiation traveling through space with the speed of light.

In electric power transmission and distribution, the phenomena inside of the conductor are of main importance, and the electric field of the conductor is usually observed only incidentally.[9] Inversely, in the use of electric power for radio telecommunications it is only the electric and magnetic fields outside of the conductor, that is electromagnetic radiation, which is of importance in transmitting the message. The phenomenon in the conductor, the current in the launching structure, is not used.[3]

The electric charge displacement in the conductor produces a magnetic field and resultant lines of electric force. The magnetic field is a maximum in the direction concentric, or approximately so, to the conductor. That is, a ferromagnetic body[10] tends to set itself in a direction at right angles to the conductor. The electric field has a maximum in a direction radial, or approximately so, to the conductor. The electric field component tends in a direction radial to the conductor and dielectric bodies may be attracted or repelled radially to the conductor.[11]

The electric field of a circuit over which energy flows has three main axes at right angles with each other:
The magnetic field, concentric with the conductor.
The lines of electric force, radial to the conductor.
The power gradient, parallel to the conductor.

Where the electric circuit consists of several conductors, the electric fields of the conductors superimpose upon each other, and the resultant magnetic field lines and lines of electric force are not concentric and radial respectively, except approximately in the immediate neighborhood of the conductor. Between parallel conductors they are conjugate of circles. Neither the power consumption in the conductor, nor the magnetic field, nor the electric field, are proportional to the flow of energy through the circuit. However, the product of the intensity of the magnetic field and the intensity of the electric field is proportional to the flow of energy or the power, and the power is therefore resolved into a product of the two components i and e, which are chosen proportional respectively to the intensity of the magnetic field and of the electric field. The component called the current is defined as that factor of the electric power which is proportional to the magnetic field, and the other component, called the voltage, is defined as that factor of the electric power which is proportional to the electric field.[11]

In radio telecommunications the electric field of the transmit antenna propagates through space as a radio wave and impinges upon the receive antenna where it is observed by its magnetic and electric effect.[11] Radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X rays and gamma rays are shown to be the same electromagnetic radiation phenomenon, differing one from the other only in frequency of vibration

### wireless power transmissoin-Wireless energy transfer

Wireless energy transfer or wireless power is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without artificial interconnecting conductors. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The problem of wireless power transmission differs from that of wireless telecommunications, such as radio. In the latter, the proportion of energy received becomes critical only if it is too low for the signal to be distinguished from the background noise.With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical.

The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using direct induction followed by resonant magnetic induction. Other methods under consideration include electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or lasers

Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional, allowing longer distance power beaming, with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, typically in the microwave range. A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized. Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to Earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered.

Power beaming by microwaves has the difficulty that for most space applications the required aperture sizes are very large due to diffraction limiting antenna directionality. For example, the 1978 NASA Study of solar power satellites required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna, and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna, for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz[citation needed]. These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths, although short wavelengths may have difficulties with atmospheric absorption and beam blockage by rain or water droplets. Because of the "thinned array curse," it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites.

For earthbound applications a large area 10 km diameter receiving array allows large total power levels to be used while operating at the low power density suggested for human electromagnetic exposure safety. A human safe power density of 1 mW/cm2 distributed across a 10 km diameter area corresponds to 750 megawatts total power level. This is the power level found in many modern electric power plants.

Following World War II, which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons, the idea of using microwaves to transmit power was researched. By 1964 a miniature helicopter propelled by microwave power had been demonstrated.

Japanese researcher Hidetsugu Yagi also investigated wireless energy transmission using a directional array antenna that he designed. In February 1926, Yagi and Uda published their first paper on the tuned high-gain directional array now known as the Yagi antenna. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission, this beam antenna has been widely adopted throughout the broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries due to its excellent performance characteristics.

Wireless high power transmission using microwaves is well proven. Experiments in the tens of kilowatts have been performed at Goldstone in California in 1975 and more recently (1997) at Grand Bassin on Reunion Island. These methods achieve distances on the order of a kilometer.

wireless power transmission Reviewed by Suresh Bojja on 9/04/2015 06:29:00 AM Rating: 5

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