Digital Image Processing Important Questions

1) what is Digital Image Processing? Explain the origins of the Digital Image Processing
2) Explain the Fields that use Digital image Processing ?
3) Explain in brief the steps in Digital image processing ?
4) What are the Components of Digital Image Processing ,Explain ?
5) what is photopic  and scotopic vision ,how effects the vision of the human eye
6) explain image sampling and quantization ,explain with an example ?
7) what is resolution ? explain gray level and spatial resolutions ?
8) Explain the aliasing and Moiré Patterns ?
9) explain the basic relationship between the Pixels ?
10)explain the process of image acquisition?
11)explain different logical operations performed on the images?
12)Discuss all types of transform?
1) represent the transform function for gray level contrast enhancement ?
2)explain the gray level transformations - 1.image negatives 2.log transform ?
3) explain piecewise-Linear transformation functions  ?1.contrast stretching   2.gray level slicing   3.bit-plane slicing
4)what is histogram ?
5)explain histogram Equalization ?
6)explain histogram matching (specification) ?
7)how the image get enhanced using the gradient operator(first derivative operator) ?
8) explain the use of second derivative operator for enhancing the image (laplacian operator) ?
9)explain briefly about smoothing by linear filters and order static filters?
1)explain the basic  properties of discrete Fourier transform ?
2)give the stepwise basics of filtering in frequency domain?
3)explain smoothing filters in frequency domain ideal low pass ,Butterworth low pass ,Gaussian low pass filters?
4)explain sharpening filters in frequency domain? ideal  high pass filters, Butterworth high pass, Gaussian high pass filters ?
5)give the basic formulation for high boost filtering ?
6)explain about homomorphic filtering  approach for image enhancement?
1)draw and explain degradation model /restoration process?
2)give basic formulation for noise models?
3)spatial filtering: (mean filters): arithmetic mean filter, geometric mean filter, harmonic mean filter , contra harmonic mean filter,?
4)explain briefly about notch and optimum notch filters?
5)explain about mean square error(Wiener) filtering?
6)explain about inverse filtering?
7)explain the image reconstructions using back projection using one example?
8)explain briefly about computed tomography?
9)explain radon transform with equations?
10)explain Fourier slice theorem ?
11)what is sinogram ,explain with an example ?
1)what is Dilation ? explain with an example?
2)what is erosion ? explain with an example ?
3)give the basic formulation for opening and closing operations ? explain with an example ?
4)what are the properties of Opening and closing operations satisfies ?
5)explain Hit-or-Miss transform with an example ? give the basic formulation .
6)explain with an examples of basic morphological Algorithms
 i)boundary extraction   ii)region filling    iii)extraction of connected components   iv)convex hull                 v)thinning                 vi)thickening      vii)skeletons  viii)pruning
7)explain how the dilation and erosion operations can extended to gray scale images ? explain with an example
8) extend the opening and closing operations to gray scale images ? what are the properties that opening and closing operations will satisfies ?
9)explain the briefly applications of gray scale morphology like image smoothing, morphological gradient, top-hat transform ? 
1)explain the color image fundamentals? 
2)explain the RGB color model ?
3)explain the HSI color model ?
4)explain the CMY and CMYK color model ?
5)explain how the RGB color model converted in to HSI color space ?
6) explain how the HSI color model converted in to RGB  color space ?
7)with neat diagram explain intensity slicing in pseudo color image processing ?
8)how gray level converted to color in gray level transformation in pseudo color image processing ?
9)give an example for gray level transformation and explain ?
10)what are the basic formulation required for RGB,HSI and CMYK color models in full color processing ?
11)draw the color complement circle ?
12)what is color slicing and give the basic formulation ?
12)explain the terms Flat ,light and Dark terms in tonal correction ?
13)give the basic formulation for color image smoothing ,sharpening and segmentation ?
14)explain in brief Noise in color images ?
1) explain various types of edge detection discontinuity techniques? (line, point, edge)
2)explain global thresholding ?
3)explain adaptive thresholding?
4)explain local thresholding?
5)explain region growing segmentation?
6)explain region splitting and merging in image segmentation?
7)explain the basic concepts in morphological watersheds?
8)the use of motion in segmentation using spatial techniques - basic approach and accumulative difference ?
9)the use of motion in segmentation using frequency  techniques -basic equations?

Department of ECE

Digital watermarking:Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital signal which may be used to verify its authenticity or the identity of its owners, in the same manner as paper bearing a watermark for visible identification. In digital watermarking, the signal may be audio, pictures, or video. If the signal is copied, then the information also is carried in the copy. A signal may carry several different watermarks at the same time.
In visible digital watermarking, the information is visible in the picture or video. Typically, the information is text or a logo, which identifies the owner of the media. The image on the right has a visible watermark. When a television broadcaster adds its logo to the corner of transmitted video, this also is a visible watermark.
In invisible digital watermarking, information is added as digital data to audio, picture, or video, but it cannot be perceived as such (although it may be possible to detect that some amount of information is hidden in the signal). The watermark may be intended for widespread use and thus, is made easy to retrieve or, it may be a form of stegano-graphy, where a party communicates a secret message embedded in the digital signal. In either case, as in visible watermarking, the objective is to attach ownership or other descriptive information to the signal in a way that is difficult to remove. It also is possible to use hidden embedded information as a means of covert communication between individuals.
One application of watermarking is in copyright protection systems, which are intended to prevent or deter unauthorized copying of digital media. In this use, a copy device retrieves the watermark from the signal before making a copy; the device makes a decision whether to copy or not, depending on the contents of the watermark. Another application is in source tracing. A watermark is embedded into a digital signal at each point of distribution. If a copy of the work is found later, then the watermark may be retrieved from the copy and the source of the distribution is known. This technique reportedly has been used to detect the source of illegally copied movies.

Reversible watermarking:
reversible means restoring the data exactly.i.e what you are embedding that will be restored .
reversible watermark is also called as fragile one important thing that is reversibility of the image is also depends upon the embedding load in to the image.
generally this will be used for authentication purpose.but reversibility can be
obtained if the watermarked image is not tampered.

Robust watermark:A digital watermark is called robust if it resists a designated class of transformations. Robust watermarks may be used in copy protection applications to carry copy and no access control information.

semi-fragile watermark: A digital watermark is called semi-fragile if it resists benign transformations, but fails detection after malignant transformations. Semi-fragile watermarks commonly are used to detect malignant transformations.

fragile watermark:A digital watermark is called fragile if it fails to be detectable after the slightest modification. Fragile watermarks are commonly used for tamper detection (integrity proof). Modifications to an original work that clearly are noticeable, commonly are not referred to as watermarks, but as generalized barcodes.

Amrita Sai Institute of Science and Technology
Digital Image Processing Important Questions Digital Image Processing Important Questions Reviewed by Suresh Bojja on 9/15/2018 10:19:00 AM Rating: 5

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